(1) Company listings from U.S. Compustat + (2)Scientific publications from Web of Sciences + (3) Patent and non-patent literature(NPL) citations fro PatStat database;

The sample of firms in the database include publicly traded US headquartered companies over the period, 1980-2006

These firms have at least one year of positive R&D expenditures and one patent during 1980 and 2006. We present data from firm-years with active records on Compustat(i.e., only for years the firm is publicly traded). To caputre the complexity of large firms innovative activities, which can be typically organized across subsidiaries, we aggregate the data to the ultimate-owner-parent-company level.

Publication data are based on Web of Science database articles from journals covered in the Science Citations Index and Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science, which exclude social sciences, arts and humanities articles

Firms are classified into main industries based on four-digit SIC level.

For more details on publication, patent and citation matching refer to:

  1. Arora, A., Belenzon, S. and Patacconi, A., 2015. Killing the golden goose? The decline of science in corporate R&D(NO. w20902). National Bereaus of Economic research.
  2. Arora, A., Belenzon, S. and Sheer, L., 2015. Back to Basics: Why do Firms invest in Research?(No. w23187)
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